What are platyhelminthes characteristics?

Characteristics of Platyhelminthes They are triploblastic, acoelomate, and bilaterally symmetrical. They may be free-living or parasites. The body has a soft covering with or without cilia. Their body is dorsoventrally flattened without any segments and appears like a leaf.

What are flame cells in platyhelminthes?

A flame cell is a specialized excretory cell found in the simplest freshwater invertebrates, including flatworms, rotifers and nemerteans; these are the simplest animals to have a dedicated excretory system. Flame cells function like a kidney, removing waste materials.

What are rhabdites and their role in planarians?

Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites.

What are rhabdites and what function do they serve?

They are a defensive mechanism, which dissolve in water, and they are distasteful to most animals who would prey on rhabditid worms. In nemerteans, rhabdites form mucus on which the animals glide.

What are the adhesive organs in the phylum platyhelminthes?

First, adhesive organs comprise two gland cells, an adhesive gland, and a releasing gland whose necks penetrate a modified epidermal cell called the anchor cell. Second, the adhesive gland cell contains dense membrane-bound granules while the releasing gland has smaller vesicles with less-dense membrane bound granules.

What are the disease caused by platyhelminthes?

Disease(s) Worm type Infected tissue
Schistosomiasis Blood fluke Blood
Fascioliasis, Clonorchiasis, Paragonimiasis Tissue fluke Liver, Lung
Taeniasis, Cysticercosis Tapeworm Various tissues

What are the diseases caused by platyhelminthes?

Disease(s) Worm type Infected tissue
Schistosomiasis Blood fluke Blood
Fascioliasis, Clonorchiasis, Paragonimiasis Tissue fluke Liver, Lung
Taeniasis, Cysticercosis Tapeworm Various tissues

What are the harmful effects of flatworms in man?

Children who are repeatedly infected can develop anemia, malnutrition and learning difficulties. After years of infection, the parasite can damage the liver, intestine, lungs and bladder. Rarely, it can also cause seizures, paralysis or spinal cord inflammation.

What are the two little black dots at one end of the planarian called?

Some planarian species have two eye-spots (also known as ocelli) that can detect the intensity of light, while others have several eye-spots. The eye-spots act as photoreceptors and are used to move away from light sources.

What causes fluid to enter the malpighian tubules?

Malpighian tubules of insects and other terrestrial arthropods remove nitrogenous wastes and other solutes from the hemolymph. Na+ and/or K+ ions are actively transported into the lumen of the tubules. Water then enters the tubules via osmosis, forming urine. The urine passes through the intestine, and into the rectum.

What do flame cells do in phylum platyhelminthes?

A flame cell is a specialized excretory cell found in the simplest freshwater invertebrates, including flatworms, rotifers and nemerteans; these are the simplest animals to have a dedicated excretory system. Flame cells function like a kidney, removing waste materials.

What do rhabdites do?

Rhabdites are rodlike structures in the cells of the epidermis or underlying parenchyma in certain turbellarians, and in the epidermis of nemerteans. … In nemerteans, rhabdites form mucus on which the animals glide.

What do turbellarians use rhabdites for?

Rhabdites are rod-shaped secretory products characteristic of the Turbellaria but also found in nemerteans, gastrotrichs and annelids. … It is proposed that the principal function of rhabdites in the worms studied, is adhesion.

What do turbellarians use rhabdites for?

Rhabdites are rod-shaped secretory products characteristic of the Turbellaria but also found in nemerteans, gastrotrichs and annelids. … It is proposed that the principal function of rhabdites in the worms studied, is adhesion.

What happens if you cut a flatworm in half?

Planarians are flatworms that possess an amazing ability to regenerate themselves. If you cut one planarian down the middle, each half would reform its missing parts, and you would have two planarians in a matter of weeks.

What happens if you cut a planaria in half?

They are flatworms and usually found in freshwater, and can reproduce asexually. Planaria are one of the most primitive organisms to have a central nervous system. And if you cut them up, they grow back, nervous system intact, no matter what part you slice. Each piece grows into its own, fully formed organism.

What happens to the nitrogen we breathe?

Nitrogen makes up almost four fifths of the air we breathe, but being unreactive is not used in respiration at all – we simply breathe the nitrogen back out again, unchanged. However, nitrogen is essential for the growth of most living things, and is found as a vital ingredient of proteins.

What is metagenesis class 11 which chapter?

Metagenesis is referred to the phenomenon of alternation of generation shown by cnidarians which exhibit both forms- polyps and medusae . Polyps produce medusae asexually and medusae form the polyps sexually (e.g., Obelia).

What is endo and ecto parasite?

Endoparasites live inside an organism, and ectoparasites live on the surface of the host. Parasites can be carnivorous if living with animals or herbivorous if living with plants.

What is the function of planaria?

Because of their remarkable ability to regenerate lost parts, planarians are often used experimentally to study the process of regeneration. In the flatworm Planaria, the brain consists of two cerebral ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) from which nerve cords extend the length of the body.

What is the function of a rhabdites?

It is proposed that the principal function of rhabdites in the worms studied, is adhesion. protection by means of mucus production, purine storage and excretion, cyst formation and the formation of a fluid cuticle (see summary and references in Horvasse, 1965).

What is the function of rhabdites in flatworms?

They are a defensive mechanism, which dissolve in water, and they are distasteful to most animals who would prey on rhabditid worms. In nemerteans, rhabdites form mucus on which the animals glide.

What is the function of the scolex in tapeworms?

The scolex (head) functions as an anchoring organ that attaches to intestinal mucosa. The neck is an unsegmented region with high regenerative capacity. If treatment does not eliminate the neck and scolex, the entire worm may regenerate. The rest of the worm consists of numerous proglottids (segments).

What worm has two eyespots?

Planarians are interesting to study for a variety of reasons. First, planarians have bilateral symmetry with two nerves extending the length of the body, an enlarged “brain” (ganglion cell), and two eye spots. The eye spots are sensitive to light. Planarians move away from the light and are most active in the dark.

Where are endoparasites found mention the special structures &amp adaptations possessed by these which enables them to survive in those conditions?

Related Biology Videos Mention the special structure, possessed by these and which enables them survive in those conditions. Endoparasites are found inside the host body, Mention the special structure possessed by these and which enables them to survive in those conditions. Endoparasites are found inside the host body.

Which organ system occupies the body space of the fluke?

Muscular suckers on the ventral (bottom) surface, hooks, and spines are used for attachment. The body is solid and filled with a spongy connective tissue (mesenchyme) that surrounds all the body organs. A circulatory system is absent.

Who eats platyhelminthes?

They tend to hang out below stones or in piles of foliage. Water bugs are one example of the diverse predators of these flatworms — specifically diving beetles and youngsters of dragonflies. Crustaceans, tiny fishes and tadpole also routinely dine on these kinds of flatworms.