How can amphibians breathe on land and water?

Amphibians live in both water and on land; amphibian larvae are born and live in water, and they breathe using gills. The adults live on land for part of the time and breathe both through their skin and with their lungs.

How do planaria breathe?

The planarian does not have gills or lungs, it obtains its oxygen by simple diffusion over its flat body. The dugesia cannot survive outside of the water, so biologists studying it must make sure that the specimen has plenty of water that is aerated. The dugesia does have an excretory system to remove wastes.

How do planaria sense food?

Additionally, the planarian has two visible sensory organs. The auricles are lateral flaps near the anterior of the animal. The auricles are chemoreceptors and sense chemicals in the water. Also near the anterior are two eyespots.

How do platyhelminthes avoid being eaten?

Endoparasites have a thick protective covering of cells called a that prevents them from being digested by their host. Other flukes are ectoparasites, or parasites that live on the outside of their hosts. Flukes have very simple bodies with few organs. Flukes do not have well-developed digestive systems.

How do platyhelminthes defend themselves?

Parasitic flatworms protect themselves from the hosts’ digestive liquids by developing teguments or coverings around their bodies.

How do platyhelminthes excrete waste?

(2) Flatworms have an excretory system that consists of two tubules. The cells in the tubules are called flame cells; they have a cluster of cilia that propel waste matter down the tubules and out of the body.

How do platyhelminthes feed?

Each flatworm is different in terms of food consumption, but most platyhelminthes absorb nutrients by consuming them through a mouth. Food travels into a gut-type structure that holds and digests it. Once the food is broken down, the digestive system passes it all through the body.

How do platyhelminthes get food?

Each flatworm is different in terms of food consumption, but most platyhelminthes absorb nutrients by consuming them through a mouth. Food travels into a gut-type structure that holds and digests it. Once the food is broken down, the digestive system passes it all through the body.

How do platyhelminthes get rid of waste?

In flatworms, excretion is accomplished by the epithelial lining of the gut, by the body wall, by exocytosis of vesicles, and by protonephridia. Osmoregulation in flatworms has not been demonstrated conclusively, but is thought to take place in the protonephridia.

How do platyhelminthes move?

Small flatworms (Platyhelminthes) and some of the smaller molluscan species move along the bottom by ciliary activity. On their ventral (bottom) surface, a dense coat of cilia extends from head to tail. The direction of the ciliary beat is tailward, causing the animal to glide slowly forward.

How do platyhelminthes reproduce?

Flatworms are hermaphroditic (having both male and female sex organs) and they typically reproduce both sexually and asexually. The majority of sexual reproduction is through cross-fertilization (where both individuals fertilize each other).

How do platyhelminthes survive?

To adapt to marine life this flatworm uses diffusion to breathe and to distribute nutrients to other parts of the body. Diffusion is where elements move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. A hydrostatic skeleton makes it easy for flatworms to adapt to aquatic life.

How do turbellaria breathe?

Since they breathe through their skin, flatworms are sensitive to water quality and serve as indicators of reduced oxygen and other changes in their habitat.

How do turbellaria see?

Turbellarians sense their environment with statocysts, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors. They do not have image-forming eyes, but many species have pigment cells and photoreceptors concentrated into eyespots.

How do turbellarians swim?

Turbellarians generally locomote by coordinated waves of cilia on a secreted mucus trail, though some species can swim by rhythmic muscle contractions.

How do annelids respire?

Respiration in annelids occurs primarily through their moist skin, although certain species have evolved specialized gills or use paired projections called parapodia in gas exchange. The annelid excretory system consists of paired nephridia found in each segment which function in excreting nitrogenous waste.

How do arthropods breathe?

Terrestrial arthropods possess tracheae and book lungs as respiratory organs. Tracheae are a system of tiny tubes that permit passage of gases into the interior of the body.

How do arthropods excrete?

Arthropods excrete by means of malphigian tubules, projections of the digestive tract that help conserve water. Terrestrial forms excrete nitrogen as uric acid, as do birds. Their waste is nearly dry, a superb adaptation to life on land. Arthropods have an open circulatory system, and separate sexes.

How do bullfrogs breathe?

Unlike mammals that draw air continuously into their lungs, frogs only breathe through lungs when necessary. Because they lack a diaphragm to help regulate the pressure in their lungs, frogs must use their throats, nostrils and mouths together to bring in and expel gases.

How do cockroaches breathe?

They do this by using a very efficient breathing system that uses air filled tubes, called trachea, to deliver oxygen directly to cells. Oxygen flows in as required into the tracheal system through valves on the insect, called spiracles.

How do endoparasites reproduce?

They lack cell walls in the assimilative state and reproduce by means of swimming spores (with two unequal whiplash flagella), the only part of their life cycle that does not occur inside a cell.